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Company Information

Founded: 1968
Founders: Oswell E. Spencer
Edward Ashford
James Marcus
Headquarters: Germany
Key people: Joel Allman
Akitaka Igarashi
Charles Coleman
Industry: Pharmaceuticals
Medical equipment

Umbrella Corporation

"Protecting the health of the people."

The Umbrella Corporation was a giant multinational and multidiscipline concern based in Germany that boasted global-scale shares. It was comprised of several subsidiary and affiliate companies united under a single parent company, Umbrella Pharmaceuticals. It was the world's largest pharmaceutical company by revenue for several decades.

The parent company was founded in 1968 by virologists Oswell E. Spencer, James Marcus and Edward Ashford and quickly arose as the world's top pharmaceutical company with a specialization in viral treatments. It was an executive board member of the Federation of Pharmaceutical Companies and its distribution routes extended to pharmacies and convenience stores as a household name. However, its true nature was a merchant of death active in the development and sale of biological and chemical weapons on the black market to any company or nation in the world that could afford them.

Umbrella's swift success was made possible by its aristocratic founder's wealth and the Progenitor virus, an ancient retrovirus. This virus laid the foundation of advanced viral treatment and pharmaceutical development alongside a black project to create a type of living biological weapon "B.O.W. (Bio Organic Weapons)" to monopolize the military industry. The political power of these weapons gained the company extensive influence in the governments and militaries of several developed nations including the United States and France, while its unique and top-secret venture as an arms trader and weapons contractor of such black products presented the company with enough wealth to rival a small country.

The company created the weaponized t-virus based on the Progenitor virus and covertly conducted illegal and inhumane research and development with the goal of creating increasingly more effective virus strains and B.O.W. models, producing many failures. Despite directly and indirectly causing several biohazard outbreaks; military and police forces worldwide were unable to conduct criminal investigations against the company due to its deep collusion with international politicians and VIPs. However, the company began to unravel in 1998 following a succession of incidents that culminated in the destruction of Raccoon City and a sharp drop in the company's stock prices after several lawsuits, damaging rumors, chronic deficit and a business suspension order issued by the U.S. government.

Umbrella refused to abandon illegal weapons development and continued clandestine operations through dummy companies and branches outside the U.S. until 2003, when it was declared guilty of all charges by the U.S. Supreme Court for its responsibility in the Raccoon City incident. The company's last remaining subsidiary formally dissolved in 2004. However, the remnants of Umbrella and its illicit legacy lived on in the form of an age of bioterrorism caused by the leak of its researchers and biological weapons onto black markets around the world, with other organizations inheriting and continuing this legacy for their own purposes.

The Umbrella logo was based on the Spencer family coat of arms and consisted of an octagon divided into twelve segments, six red and six white. The ostensible meaning behind the company name and logo was that of protection for those beneath the umbrella, but the true implication was one of control. 1


Genesis (1966-1967)

On December 4, 1966, British aristocrat Oswell E. Spencer and his closest friends, fellow aristocrat Edward Ashford and biochemist James Marcus, discovered an ancient retrovirus within a rare flower species in West Africa.

The flower grew only in a section of an isolated underground cave known as the "Sun Garden", itself a segment of a massive underground city that was formerly the center of the kingdom of the indigenous Ndipaya tribe. Marcus named the flower and the virus "Progenitor." 2 Although investigation showed that the virus was able to easily rewrite genes, modern humans injected with it would die through intense mutations. Its discoverers devoted themselves to research in order to realize immortality and make themselves evolved humans, but reached a lack of funds.

On March 23, 1967, Spencer presented the idea of establishing a company to Ashford and Marcus as a means to capitalize on the Progenitor virus, seeking to exploit its unique and ground-breaking properties for profit that could promote their research into attaining immortality. Ostensibly, the founders claimed to hold a conviction that virus research would deeply influence the enhancement of health for people around the world, and they sought to serve this purpose to enrich lives and build a brighter society. 3

In order to bring the new company to fruition, the three pooled their wealth and knowledge alongside several business partners, including the heads of the noble Beardsley and Henry families. This elite group shared a doctrine of racial supremacy divided not by ethnicity or skin color, but by an ideal of superior genetics. This doctrine led to a collective fascination with using the Progenitor virus to create dominant humans surpassing Homo sapiens, a possibility first noticed by Spencer in material regarding the Ndipaya tribe's kings which led to the virus' discovery. However, there was an inherent problem with this prospect as the virus had lost compatibility with modern humans and merely killed indiscriminately.

On November 17, researchers in Spencer's employ suggested utilizing the Progenitor virus' mutagenic capabilities to develop living biological weapons known as B.O.W. (Bio Organic Weapons) with high commercial viability that could reshape the very concept of war and monopolize the military industry. They considered controlling mutations using a weakened Progenitor virus strain, then mass-producing and selling mutants created with this process via cloning. However, the research was still only at a fundamental stage, requiring more long-term study. Spencer agreed to the concept and would later use the profitability of Umbrella to fund this illegal research. 4 Spencer proposed the concept to the other founders and Ashford devised the t-Virus Project, the creation of a weakened Progenitor virus not only for B.O.W. manufacture, but also to make the elite group themselves dominant humans.

Foundation (1968)

In March 1968, Spencer and his partners established Umbrella Pharmaceuticals in Germany backed by their wealth, knowledge and backgrounds in several fields, ranging from business to medical and biochemistry fields such as virology and biology. The Beardsley family's accumulation of biochemical research and expertise in brain physiology and bacteria analysis studies followed by revolutionary work in genetic research and the creation of practical genetic engineering techniques quickly elevated the company. 5

Edward Ashford continued studying the Progenitor virus alongside his son, Alexander Ashford. This research laid the foundation of the t-Virus Project. However, Alexander lacked ability as a virus researcher and used his expertise in the field of genetic engineering to advance the confidential CODE:Veronica Project to create a genius human clone able to assist his father's virus research. In April, Marcus and his student Brandon Bailey ran out of the Progenitor virus and resolved to return to Africa to collect more. However, Spencer interrupted them with a suggestion of using hired soldiers to push the Ndipaya out of the ruins housing the virus. 6

In July, Edward Ashford died from Progenitor virus exposure in an accident orchestrated by Spencer. Alexander Ashford failed to make pogress in t-virus research and caused the Ashford family's decline. As a result, Spencer's power in the company increased. On August 19, Umbrella soldiers successfully pushed the Ndipaya out of half the underground ruins in Africa, including the area containing the Sun Garden where the Progenitor flower grew. Spencer ordered construction of a secret laboratory at the site to facilitate research and culture of the Progenitor virus. However before Marcus and Bailey could return to Africa, Spencer asked that Marcus stay in America to become the first director of the Umbrella Executive Training Center.

Marcus accepted the request and relocated to the training facility. On September 15, Bailey arrived in Africa and began extracting the Progenitor virus and sending it to Marcus. With the Ashford family's decline and Marcus' isolation to the training facility, Spencer gained complete control of Umbrella and prioritized the company's administration. As the company's success and wealth grew, it began buying out smaller companies to expand into other fields. These included the subsidiary companies Umbrella Medical Equipment (medical equipment) and Umbrella Industries (firearms). It also formed the U.S.S. (Umbrella Security Service) private military unit to safeguard facilities, combat corporate terrorism and VIP abduction as well as conduct covert missions such as assassination.

t-Virus Project (1969-1977)

On June 15, 1969, construction of the Umbrella Africa Laboratory was completed and Brandon Bailey was assigned as director and chief scientist. Bailey requested an expansion of the facility to make it the forefront of Progenitor virus research with the intention of using its discoveries to aid in Marcus' t-virus development. In November, Alexander Ashford finished construction of the Umbrella Antarctic Base and an underground laboratory in an abandoned Antarctic mine. 7

In 1971, the CODE:Veronica Project succeeded after the birth of twin clones. The male twin Alfred Ashford possessed higher intelligence than normal, but the female twin Alexia Ashford possessed the genius level of intelligence envisioned by Alexander. The two children were considered Alexander's official descendants in the Ashford family bloodline despite not having his DNA. 8

Since its establishment, many B.O.W. development facilities were built ostensibly disguised as pharmaceutical laboratories and clean recreation facilities. Passionate and extraordinary researchers were allotted to each and commercialization of the Progenitor virus was studied with illegal experiment activities using various live creatures and humans as test subjects. The power structure of Umbrella came to place heavy emphasis on results with those producing the best products gaining more power and influence within the company's leadership. As a result, commercialization of stronger and more efficient products was a priority.

On September 19, 1977, the prospect of a commercialized Progenitor virus was finally in sight. James Marcus administered the Progenitor virus into leeches during an adaptation test. The leeches showed signs of rapid mutation and gained intellect and an advanced mimicry ability as a result of the infection. Examination of these mutant leeches found a recombinant strain of the virus, having incorporated elements of leech DNA. 9 Over the next few months, Marcus continued adaptation injection tests with this improved strain but came to the conclusion that human testing was necessary to perfect it. 10

On January 13, 1978, Marcus completed development of the t-virus after creating the humanoid B.O.W. Zombie. However, the new virus was stolen under Spencer's orders by executive candidates Albert Wesker and William Birkin. On July 29, the executive training center was shut down and t-virus research transferred to the Arklay Laboratory with Wesker and Birkin as chief scientists. Marcus continued his own research in the abandoned training facility and samples of the primitive t-virus were shipped to company facilities around the world to facilitate development. 11 That same year, a leak of the virus occurred in the company's mansion laboratory on Gadiwall Island.

After the 1970s, Umbrella Pharmaceuticals exported the Progenitor flower under the name Sonnentreppe. 12 In 1980, the nine-year old Alexia Ashford was assigned as chief scientist of the Umbrella Germany Laboratory with the company favoring her intelligence over her lineage. A year later, she graduated from a prestigious university at the top of her class and was immediately offered a position as chief scientist of the Umbrella Antarctic Laboratory. While studying ants, she discovered the remains of an endogenous retrovirus within a queen ant's DNA and decided to incorporate queen ant and plant DNA into the Progenitor virus, creating the t-Veronica virus. Meanwhile, William Birkin became jealous of Ashford and proposed a project to create the first combat-focused B.O.W. Hunter. 13

In 1982, Alfred Ashford discovered the CODE:Veronica Project. The Ashford twins were disgusted by their father, and as an act of both revenge and believing their father had no other use, they injected him with the t-Veronica prototype. After the virus failed to adapt to his body and transformed him into a dangerous monster, the twins sealed him in the basement of the Antarctic Base and he was considered to have mysteriously disappeared. As a result, Alfred Ashford became the seventh generation head of the Ashford family. Alexia discovered that a fifteen-year cryogenic state would allow the virus to adapt to the human body and decided to use herself and an identical girl Tanya as test subjects. 14 On December 27, 1983, Ashford and Tanya entered cryo-sleep. Ashford was officially declared dead due to accidental t-Veronica exposure and the company deemed the virus lost. This news reinvigorated William Birkin and t-virus research at the Arklay Laboratory progressed once again.

In 1984, Umbrella Japan Co., Ltd was established in Tokyo, Japan with the primary function of importing and distributing drugs made by Umbrella U.S.A. In 1987, the Umbrella Japan Laboratory was constructed using Japan's forte in biotechnology to advance unique research and product development. 15 In the late 80s, Umbrella Headquarters purchased three luxury cruise ships via its Spanish subsidiary Paraguas Lines and remodeled them to incorporate secret laboratories in order for B.O.W. and virus research to be covertly conducted at sea. 16 Around the same time, the Umbrella Africa Laboratory was able to extract the Progenitor virus from mass-produced Progenitor flowers. These samples were shipped to the company's laboratories and research facilities throughout the world and caused a significant expansion in virus research. 17

Umbrella furthered the business of other private companies through shares in their dealings and joint development of new products such as painkillers. However, Umbrella used these relationships to tactfully adopt chemicals and technologies developed by other pharmaceutical companies into every aspect of illicit weapons development, commissioning development to each company and devising it so that they wouldn't realize some of the development was for biological weapons.

Intense rivalries burned between Umbrella's research divisions throughout the world. Although it was based in Europe, most research and development at this time took place in the United States. The goal of Umbrella's founders was to make themselves immortal evolved humans. However, when Umbrella became profitable, it forgot this purpose. It adhered to the militaries of every nation and became an organization which pursued profit. However, some developers such as William Birkin and Alexia Ashford conducted research with the founding ideals.

Consolidation (1988-1998)

In 1988, the t-Virus Project under the direction of William Birkin reached the third stage at the Arklay Laboratory with the announcement of the Tyrant Project. Spencer considered Marcus' research unnecessary at this point and ordered his assassination to cover-up his role with the virus. However, the Tyrant Project was delayed due to a lack of compatible test subjects.

That same year, the Umbrella Europe Sixth Laboratory in France announced the "Nemesis Project", the use of a genetically engineered parasitic B.O.W. to enhance the capabilities of another B.O.W. However, the project was in a very early stage and all experiments thus far failed. The prototype Nemesis parasite was acquired by the Arklay Laboratory with Spencer's clout and administered to test subject Lisa Trevor, who was found to have absorbed it. William Birkin's further studies with Trevor revealed modified genes containing a reassortant strain of the t-virus, which he named "G." 18

In 1991 after three years of preliminary research into the new virus, Birkin formulated the G-Virus Project and presented it to Umbrella Headquarters for approval, attracting special attention from Spencer due to its evolutionary potential. The project was approved but due to the insufficient facilities of the Arklay Laboratory, the company began constructing a secret research facility beneath Raccoon City as the base for G-virus research. Meanwhile, Birkin and his family were transferred to the secret laboratory of executive Christine Henry in Loire, France.

In December, the Soviet Union collapsed and Umbrella began contracting its former soldiers, including Nikolai Zinoviev. Former Red Army colonel Sergei Vladimir approached Umbrella looking for work. He underwent a test to determine host adaptability for the Tyrant Project and was determined to be a positive host. He accepted a deal from Spencer to exchange ten clones of himself in exchange for an executive position within the company, reinvigorating the Tyrant Project. As a result, the company began to pour all of its power and know-how into the project to achieve its flagship B.O.W.

The company's continued development of B.O.W. products was accompanied by many sacrifices since a developmental B.O.W. could become uncontrollable during field tests killing or wounding R&D team researchers, and accidents damaging precious experiment equipment were frequent. As a solution, Umbrella Headquarters decreed the establishment of the professional special operations unit U.B.C.S. (Umbrella Biohazard Countermeasure Service) to suppress out of control B.O.W.s and biohazards within the company and provide an after-sales service to its bioweapon customers. Sergei Vladimir's military experience was instrumental in the formation of this irregular military unit.

Umbrella established branch offices and subsidiaries all over the globe and became the world's leading pharmaceutical company. It extended its business into other areas including cosmetics, supplements, food and chemicals. 19 While its public image as a clean and internationally high-profile company grew in popularity, so did its secret business as a weapons contractor. Almost every industrialized nation in the world purchased biological and chemical weapons from Umbrella, with the United States being its top customer. Umbrella exclusively held the initiative with B.O.W. development and approached the goal of monopolizing the arms industry. However, a shadowy rival company emerged and sent industrial spies to obtain information on the t-virus.

In 1992, Umbrella sought to bring Raccoon City under its complete control through organizing an extensive campaign of collusion with officials such as city mayor Michael Warren and police chief Brian Irons. It supplied funds toward the renovation of City Hall and the building of Raccoon General Hospital. These seemingly benevolent actions ensured that the city would not opposte the company. A year later, William Birkin's family were transferred to the city where he continued G-virus development as director of the Umbrella Chemical Plant and the secret underground laboratory and also served as the company's contact with police chief Irons. Over the next five years, three out of ten of the city's population became employed by the Umbrella business group.

Also in 1993, an outbreak incident occurred in a private hospital in Raccoon Forest as a result of an experimental oncolytic strain of the t-virus. The hospital received bribes from Umbrella in exchange for conducting clinical tests on humans with unapproved trial drugs developed by the company and sending back progress data. The data was then fed into biological weapons development. 20 21 The incident was covered up by the company using its influence within the city police and the hospital was abandoned. In the same year, Alfred Ashford graduated from a university in England and was assigned as commander of the Antarctic Base and Rockfort Island. In December, the military training facility on Rockfort Island was established to train its private military units.

In 1994, Umbrella scientist John Clemens was transferred from the Chicago Laboratory to the Arklay Laboratory as Birkin's successor as chief scientist. That same year, a private mansion, bridge and prison complex were constructed on Rockfort Island to the specifications of Alfred Ashford. In 1996, Umbrella became the main corporate sponsor of the major city project Bright Raccoon 21 to cement its positive corporate image within Raccoon City and wash away all possible doubt from its citizens. The funds provided by the company enabled the establishment of the special operations unit S.T.A.R.S. (Special Tactics and Rescue Service) within the local police department. A mercenary code-named HUNK also began anti-B.O.W. combat training on Rockfort Island.

The company's establishment of German electronics subsidiary Parasol enabled it to branch out into several top-secret fields of technology. It constructed thirteen "U.M.F." (Umbrella Mainframe) supercomputers to store its research data, and in 1998, a defensive AI (artificial intelligence) "RED QUEEN" was created to protect this data and the company's assets and executives. This subsidiary also developed MO (Magneto-Optical) disks.

Outbreak (1998)

In 1998, a field test of the N•t-virus was conducted on Gadiwall Island under the direction of executive Mylène Beardsley. However, the arrival of former soldier Norse Chirac on the island led to the test's failure. Spencer gave full authority to company agent Gilliam to kill her and erase the site, but in the process, the enhanced virus was lost. In order to anticipate and meet the diversifying needs of B.O.W. clients, the Arklay Laboratory B.O.W. Research Team conceived the Talos Project based on the success of the Tyrant. 22

In May 1998, ten years after the assassination of James Marcus, the Queen Leech specimen he was working with just prior to his death had managed to assimilate his DNA and inherited his memories. This clone plotted revenge against the company and the destruction of the world, and to achieve this, it contaminated the executive training center with the t-virus and on May 11, caused an accidental leak of the virus within the Arklay Laboratory. It then began to contaminate the Umbrella Sewerage treatment plant and the underground laboratory within Raccoon City.

The leak of the t-virus led to several bizarre murder cases in Raccoon City the company couldn't cover up. The Arklay Laboratory was placed on complete lock-down while infected personnel slowly succumbed to the virus. Umbrella concealed the true nature of the leaks from all but a handful of employees and instead of attempting to better understand the incident, the company forced the researchers to regularly report data about it in order to advance the development of further biological weapons. William Birkin successfully recovered research material from the laboratory, including B.O.W. embryos and several strains of the t-virus. Research and development on these samples, as well as the irregular mutant Plant 42, was transferred to his laboratory beneath Raccoon City.

In June, the incidents became too much to contain due to increasing reports of bizarre murders. Spurred by the inflamed public fear, the local police mobilized S.T.A.R.S. to investigate. Due to this development, the company formulated a plan to acquire B.O.W. combat data with the skilled S.T.A.R.S. as combatants. Meanwhile, the head office ordered the "Reclamation Project" to investigate and reclaim the executive training center as a replacement research facility. Two investigation units were sent in, but the first was wiped out by B.O.W.s infesting the facility. The virus soon began to spread further beyond the training center due to the movements of the Queen Leech. 23

On July 23, the entire second investigation unit was killed on the company's Ecliptic Express train and members of S.T.A.R.S. Bravo Team began to uncover the company's illicit enterprise. Believing the chain of events in the Arklay Mountains would be the end of the company, Albert Wesker set a long-awaited plan in motion to establish a high position for himself in Umbrella's rival company by providing information. This plot was intercepted by executive Sergei Vladimir, who knew of his betrayal. He failed to kill Wesker due to Birkin's detonation of the training center, and afterwards, Wesker regrouped with S.T.A.R.S. Alpha Team and deployed them into Raccoon Forest the next day under the pretense of searching for the missing Bravo Team.

On July 24, Wesker collected a large amount of combat data from the encounters between the S.T.A.R.S. teams and B.O.W. test subjects while William Birkin formally announced the data to the Chicago branch. While Wesker gathered B.O.W. combat data, Sergei Vladimir saved all the research data to the U.M.F.-013 and used RED QUEEN to revoke Wesker's access. Spencer used a dummy company of Umbrella to purchase an abandoned government chemical plant in the Russian Caucasus region and assigned Vladimir as director. The T-011 test subject for the project was transported to the new Caucasus Laboratory and the Talos Project was restarted under Vladimir's command.

Wesker faked his death at the hands of the Tyrant (T-002 Type) and released it against the remaining officers to obtain its combat data, but it was destroyed in the process. Wesker lost his ultimate gift and was forced to escape, but still managed to secure himself a position in the rival company with the t-virus, embryos and vast combat data he recovered. Umbrella attached surveillance to the surviving officers of S.T.A.R.S. in order to keep track of them as potential threats. The survivors appealed to the police and the media, but Umbrella incurred little damage and vowed to inject further funding into the city to stimulate its economy in the Mansion Incident's aftermath.

After the incident, the Hunter and Tyrant were successfully mass-produced and became the company's flagship B.O.W. models and new B.O.W. projects began, such as the Ivy. With James Marcus dead and Alexia Ashford gone, Birkin gained power and influence as the scientist responsible for creating and successfully mass-producing the Hunter and Tyrant. With his successes, the power of the American branch gradually increased, forcing the European branch to bend to its will. Furthermore, Birkin's announcement regarding the next evolution in B.O.W. research, the "Creation of G-Creatures", enabled the Chicago branch to assume dictatorial control over the corporation.

The many Umbrella Europe laboratories directly administered by the head office joined forces and created a variety of successful enhancements to existing B.O.W. models such as the Hunter γ and Nemesis-T Type in an attempt to restrain the growing influence of the American branch. Disturbed by this threat, the Chicago branch placed enormous pressure on Birkin to complete the G-virus with constant demands for progress reports to show to the head office, but this only resulted in increasing his displeasure with the corporation. As he began to continue research independently, he feared he would be used as a scapegoat for the leak of sensitive research data caused by the outbreak in the Arklay Laboratory as an excuse to eliminate him.

On August 20, the head office instead issued a dismissal notice to Morpheus D. Duvall as a scapegoat for the Arklay Laboratory since he was deemed a threat to the company after attracting subordinates and holding visible power as head of the company's waste disposal site and undersea laboratory in the Atlantic Ocean, where his careless management led to several accidents. 24 The waste disposal site was abandoned by the head office, but unknown to the company, the facility and its staff were taken over by Duvall who began formulating a plan to steal the Progenitor virus and establish a military state in Africa with the intention of using Umbrella as a tool. 25

Raccoon City Destruction Incident (Late 1998)

On September 15, Umbrella discovered William Birkin's intention to defect to the American government. Fearing the leak of its top mind and G-virus onto the market, the Chicago branch requested the head office to deploy the U.S.S. to seize the virus. This operation was placed under the command of executive and France branch facility director Christine Henry. She negotiated with the French military to keep quiet on the transport of the virus to her laboratory in France in exchange for making the military preferential customers to future B.O.W. models. A dispatch order was also placed on the entire U.B.C.S. in the event of the U.S.S. squad's failure.

On September 20, U.S.S. Alpha and Bravo teams infiltrated Raccoon City. At the same time, U.S. military authorities issued top-secret directives to a Delta Force unit to infiltrate the city, rescue Birkin and recover the G-virus. However, Umbrella spies within the government used misinformation to lead the unit to the company's waste disposal plant in the city in order to buy extra time for the U.S.S. to reach Birkin.

On September 23, the U.S.S. confronted Birkin and fatally wounded him, but he injected himself with a sample of the G-virus and transformed into a "G" creature, allowing him to track down and kill the teams. Two agents survived but the G-virus samples were destroyed while samples of the t-virus leaked into the sewers and infected the local rodent and insect populations. As a result, a large-scale outbreak of the virus occurred within the city that quickly permeated. In response to the seizure operation's failure, Umbrella issued notices of the outbreak to its collaborators within Raccoon City and the federal government.

On September 24, the U.S. President issued an executive order declaring martial law and blockading Raccoon City with Congressional approval under the pretense of a radioactive waste leak. During the incident, Umbrella cooperated with the government to allow its developmental B.O.W. models into the city and plotted to use the incident as a demonstration of the t-virus' power to its customers and as a live field test to gather data on its B.O.W. products and any irregular mutants born out of secondary infection.

On September 26, the entire 120-man U.B.C.S. was deployed into Raccoon City ostensibly to rescue civilians, but truly to serve as combatants for B.O.W. combat data collection. The Chicago branch set up a Directorate of Operations to oversee the company's actions during the incident with key figures in the head office having control over the chain of command. The head office used its monitor agents within the U.B.C.S. to collect intelligence, combat data, recover treatment data, destroy evidence and carry out other objectives such as assassination of rogue employees. 26

A second U.S.S. squad was deployed into the city in another attempt to recover the G-virus. The Umbrella Europe Sixth Laboratory deployed the new Nemesis-T Type B.O.W. under the guise of a "combat performance analysis", but the research team's ultimate goal was to hunt down and kill the S.T.A.R.S. officers that destroyed the American-made Tyrant in an attempt to establish Umbrella Europe as the superior branch of the company. Its weapons were planted in the city by the company's agents.

On September 29, executive Sergei Vladimir dispatched six mass-produced Tyrants into the city and set out to recover the U.M.F.-013 to ensure the company's survival in the wake of the incident. The first Tyrant was deployed into the police station to track down and seize the G-virus sample hidden in the pendant of Sherry Birkin. The remaining five were deployed into the company's waste incineration plant to eradicate the Delta Force soldiers in the city attempting to recover the G-virus, leading to mutual destruction. The first Tyrant was also destroyed by rookie police officer Leon S. Kennedy.

An enormous amount of data on the threat posed by biological weapons was collected not only by Umbrella, but also by government official Derek C. Simmons, who used the incident as a case study and then proposed the military's Sterilization Operation, the use of a new top-secret thermobaric warhead as a means to eradicate evidence of the government's involvement with Umbrella and the incident. 27 He incited the President and government radicals and pushed the plan to Congress. To delay the operation, Umbrella released surveillance footage to the media showing the U.B.C.S. rescuing civilians. 28

On September 30, the European branch shipped several Hunter γ specimens to the Chicago branch for land transport into the city alongside the American-made Hunter β. The second U.S.S. squad suffered severe casualties, with the first squad's surviving agent Miguel also being killed. The second squad's only survivor Rodriguez decided to betray the company and steal Nyx. Attempts to recover Nyx by a U.B.C.S. team under the command of Tommy Neilsen failed, but Neilsen prevented it from being airlifted out of the city. As a result, the company lost Nyx, but surviving U.S.S. first squad agent HUNK successfully recovered the G-virus sample originating from Sherry Birkin's pendant.

On October 1, Congress passed the Sterilization Operation and the company issued an evacuation order to its agents within the city. 29 At dawn, the city was completely eradicated. The results from the incident caused each American branch of Umbrella to rapidly lose power, including the Chicago branch. The U.S. government secretly formed the top-secret Anti-Umbrella Pursuit and Investigation Team, a specialized military unit in USSTRATCOM (United States Strategic Command) comprised of agents with anti-B.O.W. experience tasked with investigating and dismantling the company's illegal operations.

In November, Spencer shut down the Umbrella Africa Laboratory and ordered the assassinations of senior Umbrella executives with Level 9 and Level 10 information access privileges in order to conceal location of the laboratory and thus, the Progenitor virus. By concealing the virus' location, he ensured that he could keep it out of the hands of other parties and once again revive Umbrella in another form later once funding was acquired. 30

Raccoon Trial (1999-2003)

In February 1999, the American government blamed Umbrella for the incident in Raccoon City and issued a business suspension order against the company, preventing it from operating on U.S. soil. This dealt a crippling blow to its global stock prices and the company appealed the decision to the U.S. Supreme Court while Spencer formed the strongest possible legal counsel using his wealth. The media began uncovering some of the company's violations of the law. 31

The defense used perjured witnesses to tilt public opinion toward a government conspiracy theory and stir up public doubt by selling secrets incriminating the government in pieces to the court and the media. The government opposed and appealed mainly on the testimony of Raccoon City survivors, but all evidence against either entity was erased due to the Sterilization Operation. Since several government officials at the time also refused testimony for fear of their own crimes, the trial merely progressed slowly. Umbrella subsequently entered a state of collapse due to declining sales and prepared several plans for a revival. 32

Due to Umbrella's secret outsourcing of biological weapons development to other unwitting pharmaceutical companies, the entire industry suffered a severe hit to public relations and several companies were added as defendants in the lawsuits against Umbrella as a result of their unknowing involvement. Even if declared not guilty, the trial's deterioration of their public image would have a massive influence on not only sales, but also the authorizations of governments around the world. For the pharmaceutical industry, lack of approval for the drugs they develop was also a death sentence. 33

The federation's member companies approached the prosecution with a plea-bargain. They offered to fully cooperate in resolving the case and gladly provided trade secrets to corner Umbrella. This was favorably accepted by the prosecution burning with passion for Umbrella's annihilation and they scrapped the prosecution of the federation's companies. Due to Umbrella's successful recovery of the U.M.F.-013 from Raccoon City, the company was in a position to revive itself and continue where it left off, but still required funding.

Since the suspension order against the American branch, research and development of biological weapons was conducted by dummy companies and the European branch through the laboratories administered by the head office. Meanwhile the company's Russian branch, the Caucasus Laboratory, was used as a mass-production plant. If there was sufficient prospect for a B.O.W. to find a practical use, an applicable production line was installed. With this facility it was possible for Umbrella to supply the entire world with biological weapons using transport ships and secure funding for continuing operations.

In 2002, Spencer plotted to revive Umbrella with funds gained from a secret bioweapons auction aboard the Spencer Rain cruise ship with several high-value customers from around the world. However, former employee Morpheus D. Duvall attacked the Umbrella Development Laboratory Paris Branch and stole three samples of the t-virus, then seajacked the cruise ship and leaked the virus. As a result of this bioterrorism incident, Umbrella lost many customers and valuable samples, including the t+G-virus. The company was forced to rely on the Talos Project as its only hope of a revival.

In February 2003, Umbrella's rival company discovered the Caucasus Laboratory's location. This information was leaked by Albert Wesker to the Russian government, which hesitated to use the national army and hired the Private Anti-Biohazard Service led by Chris Redfield and Jill Valentine to raid the location and leave no trace of the government's involvement. On February 13, the raid was conducted and Wesker used the unit as a distraction to kill Sergei Vladimir and steal the Umbrella Archive, erasing the original data in the process.

In a deal with the U.S. government, Wesker provided incriminating data from the Umbrella Archive to the prosecution as key evidence in the Supreme Court case against Umbrella. The company was immediately declared guilty of all charges related to the Raccoon City incident, but the evidence was never publicized. CEO Oswell E. Spencer disappeared to evade responsibility and went into hiding while pursued by the FBI (U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation) and the MVD (Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs). 34 Umbrella's rival company rose as the leader in the B.O.W. market due to the data obtained by Wesker. However, he also provided the Umbrella Archive alongside the t-virus and t-Veronica to TRICELL, creating competition and securing himself a backup position should the rival company dissolve or betray him. 35 On March 4, Umbrella Pharmaceuticals announced it was virtually bankrupt and expected the company headquarters to soon be placed in receivership. 36

Remnants (2004 - Present)

Since Umbrella Pharmaceuticals' 100% bankruptcy in 2003, the employees of Umbrella Japan Co., Ltd united and pushed the remaining business toward profitability, but Umbrella's lost lawsuits made continuing operations more difficult than the path to bankruptcy. The Japanese subsidiary explored methods to continue operations and looked for a target to transfer the business, but this effort failed as no domestic and foreign pharmaceutical companies or enterprises pursuing a different business showed interest. On March 10, the subsidiary's Board of Directors decided on its dissolution and the last remaining vestige of Umbrella vanished from the world. 37

B.O.W. development technology secretly studied by Umbrella flowed into illegal channels. As a result, many acts of destruction involving B.O.W. and virus use were carried out by rogue nations, guerillas, organized crime and terrorist organizations around the world, particularly in regional conflicts. 38

In 2007, the Umbrella Africa Laboratory was discovered by TRICELL after interrogating former senior executive Carlos M.

Umbrella Corporation

Umbrella Pharmaceuticals was based in Germany and divided into regional subsidiaries. The European branch was directly administered by the head office while the American branch excercised independence. The head office purchased other companies to expand into other business fields.

These companies were reformed as subsidiaries in the concern business group "Umbrella Corporation." This group was formed as a merger of several legally independent companies into a single economic entity under the unified management and sole ownership of Umbrella Pharmaceuticals.

Umbrella Pharmaceuticals

Umbrella Europe

Umbrella U.S.A.

Umbrella Japan Co., Ltd

Umbrella Industries

Umbrella Medical Equipment

North America


Paraguas Lines


  1. 1. Umbrella Corporation Notes
  2. 2. Chief Scientist Brandon's Diary 1
  3. 3. About Umbrella's Founding
  4. 4. Trevor's Notes - Trevor's Note (3)
  5. 5. BIO HAZARD The Wicked North Sea (Page 165)
  6. 6. Chief Scientist Brandon's Diary 2
  7. 7. Alexander's Memoir
  8. 8. CODE:Veronica Report
  9. 9. Marcus' Diary 1
  10. 10. Report On B.O.W.
  11. 11. Wesker's Report II - July 31, 1978
  12. 12. Photo Analysis Acquisition Route Unknown
  13. 13. Wesker's Report II - July 27, 1981
  14. 14. Alfred's Diary
  15. 15. NEWS Regarding the Bankruptcy of UMBRELLA
  16. 16. The Queen Zenobia and its History
  17. 17. Research Background on the Progenitor Virus
  18. 18. Observation Record
  19. 19. Job Offer Information!
  20. 20. Doctor's Written Accusation
  21. 21. Kurt's Notebook
  22. 22. Talos Project
  23. 23. Training Center Reclamation Project
  24. 24. Notice of Dismissal
  25. 25. Architect's Memo
  26. 26. Orders to a Monitor
  27. 27. Simmons and the Sterilization Operation
  28. 28. Yasuhisa Kawamura Interview (Project Umbrella)
  29. 29. FAX from the Directorate of Operations
  30. 30. Spencer's Notebook
  31. 31. Umbrella, Raccoon Trial
  32. 32. Wesker's Extra Report
  33. 33. No. 02 BSAA
  34. 34. Anti-Umbrella Activist Net Interview
  36. 36. Baker Correspondence FAX (UMBRELLA)
  37. 37. Copy ~ UMBRELLA Site
  38. 38. BSAA File