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Company Information

Founded: 1968
Founders: Oswell E. Spencer
Edward Ashford
James Marcus
Headquarters: Germany
Key people: Joel Allman
Akitaka Igarashi
Charles Coleman
Industry: Pharmaceuticals
Biotechnology
Medical equipment
Chemicals
Firearms
Title

Umbrella Corporation

"Protecting the health of the people."

The Umbrella Corporation was a giant multinational and multidiscipline konzern based in Germany that boasted global-scale shares. It was comprised of several subsidiary and affiliate companies united under a single parent company, Umbrella Pharmaceuticals. It was the world's largest pharmaceutical company by revenue for several decades.

The parent company was founded in 1968 by virologists Oswell E. Spencer, James Marcus and Edward Ashford and quickly arose as the world's top pharmaceutical company with a specialization in viral treatments. It was an executive board member of the Federation of Pharmaceutical Companies and its distribution routes extended to pharmacies and convenience stores as a household name. However, its true nature was a merchant of death active in the development and sale of biological and chemical weapons on the black market to any company or nation in the world that could afford them.

Umbrella's swift success was made possible by its aristocratic founders and the vital component of the Progenitor virus, an ancient retrovirus. This virus laid the foundation of advanced viral treatment and pharmaceutical development alongside a black project to create a type of living biological weapon "B.O.W. (Bio Organic Weapons)" to monopolize the military industry. The political power of these weapons gained the company extensive influence in the governments and militaries of many developed nations including the United States and France, while its unique and top-secret venture as an arms trader and weapons contractor of such black products presented the company with enough wealth to rival a small country.

The company created the weaponized t-virus based on the Progenitor virus and secretly conducted illegal and inhumane research and development with the goal of creating increasingly more effective virus strains and B.O.W. models, producing many failures. Despite directly and indirectly causing several biohazard outbreaks; military and police forces worldwide were unable to conduct criminal investigations against the company due to its deep collusion with international politicians and VIPs. However, the company began to unravel in 1998 following a succession of incidents that culminated in the destruction of Raccoon City and a sharp drop in the company's stock prices after several lawsuits, damaging rumors, chronic deficit and a business suspension order issued by the U.S. government.

Umbrella refused to abandon the development of illegal weapons and continued its clandestine operations through dummy companies and branches outside the U.S. until 2003, when it was brought to justice by the U.S. Supreme Court for its responsibility in the Raccoon City incident. The company was formally dissolved in 2004. However, the remnants of Umbrella and its illicit legacy lived on in the form of an age of bioterrorism caused by the leak of its researchers and biological weapons onto black markets around the world, with other organizations inheriting and continuing this legacy for their own purposes.

The Umbrella logo was based on the Spencer family coat of arms and consisted of an octagon divided into twelve segments: six red and six white. The ostensible meaning behind the company name and logo was that of protection for those beneath the umbrella, but the true implication was one of enslavement. 1

History

Genesis (1966-1967)

On December 4, 1966, British aristocrat Oswell E. Spencer and his closest friends, fellow aristocrat Edward Ashford and biochemist James Marcus, discovered an ancient retrovirus within a rare flower species in West Africa.

The flower grew only in a section of an isolated underground cave known as the "Sun Garden", itself a segment of a massive underground city that was formerly the center of the kingdom of the indigenous Ndipaya tribe. They named the flower and the virus "Progenitor." 2 Although investigation showed that the virus was able to easily rewrite genes, modern humans injected with it would die through intense mutations. Its discoverers devoted themselves to research in order to realize immortality, but reached a lack of funds.

On March 23, 1967, Spencer presented the idea of establishing a company to Ashford and Marcus as a means to capitalize on the Progenitor virus, seeking to exploit its unique and ground-breaking properties for profit that could promote their research into attaining immortality. Ostensibly, the founders claimed to hold a conviction that virus research would deeply influence the enhancement of health for people around the world, and they sought to serve this purpose to enrich lives and build a brighter society. However, Spencer harbored a darker self-centered motivation of becoming a god and ruling over an evolved human species. 3

On November 17, researchers in Spencer's employ suggested utilizing the Progenitor virus' mutagenic capabilities to develop living biological weapons known as B.O.W. (Bio Organic Weapons) with high commercial viability that could reshape the very concept of war and monopolize the military industry. They considered controlling mutations using a virus which weakened the Progenitor virus capabilities, then mass-producing and selling mutants created with this process via cloning. That was the beginning of Umbrella. However, the research was still only at a fundamental stage, requiring more long-term study. Spencer agreed to the concept and would later use the profitability of Umbrella to fund this illegal research. 4 Spencer proposed the concept to the other founders and Ashford devised the "Tyrant Virus Project", the creation of a weakened strain of the Progenitor virus for B.O.W. manufacture.

Over the next year, the three pooled their wealth and knowledge alongside several business partners, including the heads of the noble Beardsley and Henry families. This elite group shared a doctrine of racial supremacy divided not by ethnicity or skin color, but by an ideal of superior genetics. This doctrine led to a collective fascination with using the Progenitor virus to create "dominant humans" surpassing Homo sapiens, a possibility first noticed by Spencer in material regarding the Ndipaya tribe's kings which led to the virus' discovery. However, there was an inherent problem with this prospect in that the virus had lost its compatibility with modern humans. As a result, the t-Virus Project served the ulterior goal of creating a virus adaptable to modern humans.

Foundation (1968)

In March 1968, Spencer and his business partners established Umbrella Pharmaceuticals in Germany backed by their incredible wealth, knowledge and backgrounds in several fields, ranging from business to medical and biochemistry fields, as well as virology and biology. The Beardsley family's accumulation of biochemical research and expertise in brain physiology and bacteria analysis studies, followed by revolutionary work in genetic research and the creation of practical genetic engineering techniques, quickly elevated the company. 5

Edward Ashford continued study of the Progenitor virus alongside his son, Alexander Ashford. This research laid the foundation of the t-Virus Project. However, Alexander lacked ability as a virus researcher and used his expertise in the field of genetic engineering to begin work on the top-secret "CODE:Veronica Project" with the goal of creating a genius human clone that could succeed and continue his father's virus research. In April, Marcus and his student Brandon Bailey ran out of their supply of the Progenitor virus and resolved to return to Africa to collect more. However, Spencer interrupted them with a suggestion of using hired soldiers to push the Ndipaya out of the ruins housing the virus. 6

In July, Edward Ashford died after being infected with the Progenitor virus in an accident ruthlessly orchestrated by Spencer. The t-virus research conducted by Ashford was stolen and supplied to Spencer's own research team at the Arklay Laboratory. The succeeding head of the Ashford family, Alexander Ashford, failed to match his father's skill in the field of t-virus research and caused the family to decline. As a result, Spencer's power within the company increased drastically.

On August 19, Umbrella soldiers succeeded in pushing the Ndipaya out of half the underground ruins in Africa, including the area containing the Sun Garden where the Progenitor flower grew. Spencer then committed resources to constructing a secret laboratory at the site to facilitate research and production of the Progenitor virus for supply to the company's other research facilities around the world. Before Marcus and Bailey could return to Africa however, Spencer requested that Marcus stay in America to become the first director of the Umbrella Executive Training Center, a facility to train suitable top-class company personnel, each with their own aspirations for the future of Umbrella.

Marcus accepted the request and was assigned to the training facility. On September 15, Bailey arrived in Africa and began extracting the Progenitor virus and sending it to Marcus. With the Ashford family's decline and Marcus' relegation to the training facility, Spencer gained almost complete control over Umbrella and prioritized administration of the company. As the company's success and wealth grew, it began a practice of buying out smaller companies to expand its business into other fields. These included the subsidiary companies Umbrella Medical Equipment (medical equipment) and Umbrella Industries (weapons). It also began to form internal security departments such as the U.S.S. (Umbrella Security Service) to ostensibly safeguard facilities and combat corporate terrorism or VIP abduction, but also for secret purposes such as assassination.

t-Virus Project (1969-1977)

On June 15, 1969, construction of the Umbrella Africa Laboratory was completed and Brandon Bailey was assigned as director and chief scientist. However, Bailey requested an expansion of the facility that would make it the forefront of Progenitor virus research with the intention of using its discoveries to aid in Marcus' t-virus development. In November, Alexander Ashford finished construction of the Umbrella Antarctic Base and an underground laboratory. 7

In 1971, the CODE:Veronica Project was met with a surprising success after the birth of twin clones. The male twin Alfred Ashford possessed higher intelligence than normal, but it was the female twin Alexia Ashford who possessed the genius level of intelligence that Alexander envisioned. The two children were considered Alexander's official descendants of the Ashford family bloodline. 8

Since its establishment, many B.O.W. development facilities were built; ostensibly disguised as pharmaceutical laboratories and clean recreation facilities. Passionate and extraordinary researchers were allotted to each and commercialization of the Progenitor virus was studied with nefarious experiment activities using various live creatures and humans as test subjects. The power structure of Umbrella came to place heavy emphasis on results. Those who produced the best products gained more control, influence and power within the company. As a result, it always sought to commercialize stronger and more efficient products, illegal or otherwise.

On September 19, 1977, the company's prospect of a commercialized Progenitor virus was finally in sight. James Marcus administered the Progenitor virus into the bodies of leeches during an adaptation test. The leeches showed signs of rapid mutation and gained intellect and an advanced mimicry ability as a result of the infection. Examination of these mutant leeches found a mutated recombinant strain of the virus within their bodies, having incorporated elements of leech DNA. 9 Over the next few months, Marcus continued adaptation injection tests with this improved strain but came to the conclusion that human testing was necessary to complete it. 10

On January 13, 1978, Marcus completed development of the t-virus after creating the human-based B.O.W. "Zombie." However, the new virus was stolen under Spencer's orders by junior executive candidates Albert Wesker and William Birkin. On July 29, the executive training facility was shut down and t-virus research was transferred to the Arklay Laboratory with Wesker and Birkin reassigned as chief scientists. Meanwhile, Marcus continued his own research in the abandoned training facility, and samples of the primitive t-virus were shipped to company facilities around the world to facilitate development. 11 Later that year, a leak of the virus occurred at the Beardsley family's laboratory on Gadiwall Island.

In 1980, the nine-year old Alexia Ashford was assigned as chief scientist of the Umbrella Germany Laboratory with the company favoring her intelligence over her lineage. A year later, she graduated from a prestigious university at the top of her class and was immediately offered a position as chief scientist of the Umbrella Antarctic Laboratory. During her research on ants, she discovered the remains of an endogenous retrovirus within the DNA of a queen ant and decided to incorporate queen ant and plant DNA into the Progenitor virus. This method created the t-Veronica virus. Meanwhile, William Birkin became jealous and bitter over Alexia Ashford and proposed a project with the goal of creating the first combat-focused B.O.W. "Hunter." 12

In 1982, Alfred Ashford discovered the CODE:Veronica Project. The Ashford twins were disgusted and infuriated with their father, and as an act of both revenge and believing their father had no other use, they injected him with the prototype t-Veronica. After the virus failed to adapt to his body and transformed him into a dangerous monster, Alexia and Alfred sealed him within the basement of the Antarctic Base, and Alexander was considered to have mysteriously disappeared. As a result, Alfred became the seventh-generation head of the Ashford family.

In December 1983, Alexia discovered that a fifteen-year cryogenic state would allow the virus to adapt to the human body and decided to use herself as a test subject. On December 27, the day she entered cryo-sleep, she was officially declared dead due to accidental exposure to t-Veronica, and the company deemed the virus lost. This news reinvigorated William Birkin and t-virus research at the Arklay Laboratory began to progress once again.

In 1984, Umbrella Japan Co., Ltd was incorporated in Tokyo, Japan with the primary function of importing and distributing the company's USA branch-made pharmaceuticals in Japan. In 1987, the Umbrella Laboratory Japan was constructed. In the late 80s, the Umbrella Africa Laboratory became able to extract the Progenitor virus from mass-produced Progenitor flowers. These samples were shipped to the company's laboratories and research facilities throughout the world and caused a significant expansion in virus research. 13

Umbrella not only conducted its own business, but it also furthered the businesses of other private companies through shares in their dealings and joint development of new products, such as painkillers. Meanwhile, Umbrella tactfully adopted chemicals and technologies developed by other pharmaceutical companies into every aspect of their illicit weapons development, commissioning development to each company and devising it so that they wouldn't realize some of this development was for biological weapons.

Within Umbrella itself, intense rivalries burned between its different research divisions throughout the world. Although it was an organization based in Europe, most research and development took place in North America. It always sought to commercialize stronger and more efficient virus strains and B.O.W. models, and the company placed heavy emphasis on results with the division that contributes the most gaining the largest voice within the company. The goal of Umbrella's founders was to make themselves immortal superhumans. However, when Umbrella became profitable, it forgot this purpose. It adhered to the militaries of every nation and became an organization which pursued profit. However, some developers studied with the ideals of its founding.

Consolidation (1988-1998)

In 1988, the t-Virus Project under the direction of William Birkin reached the third stage at the Arklay Laboratory with the announcement of the super-soldier "Tyrant Project." With this progress, Spencer assumed control of the entire company and considered Marcus' research unnecessary. He ordered Marcus' assassination as a means to cover-up his role with the virus and prevent his research from exceeding the results of the Arklay Laboratory. However, the Tyrant Project was delayed for the next three years due to a lack of compatible test subjects.

That same year, the Umbrella Europe Sixth Laboratory in France announced the "Nemesis Project", the use of a genetically engineered parasitic B.O.W. to enhance the capabilities of another B.O.W. However, the project was in a very early stage and all experiments thus far had failed. The prototype Nemesis parasite was acquired by the Arklay Laboratory and administered to test subject Lisa Trevor, who was found to have absorbed it. William Birkin's further studies with Trevor revealed modified genes containing a highly recombined and advanced strain of the t-virus, which he named "G." 14

In 1991 after three years of preliminary research into the new virus strain, Birkin formulated the "God Virus Project" and presented it to Umbrella Headquarters for approval, attracting special attention from Spencer due to its increased potential to achieve the goal of an evolved superhuman species. The project was successfully approved, but due to the insufficient facilities of the Arklay Laboratory, the company began construction of a secret research facility beneath Raccoon City as the base for G-virus research. Meanwhile, Birkin and his family were transferred to the secret laboratory of company executive Christine Henry in France.

In December, the Soviet Union collapsed and Umbrella began to contract its former soldiers, including Nikolai Zinoviev. Former Red Army colonel Sergei Vladimir approached Umbrella looking for work. He underwent a test to determine host adaptability for the Tyrant Project and was determined to be a positive host. He accepted a deal from Spencer to exchange ten clones of himself in exchange for an executive position within the company, reinvigorating the Tyrant Project. As a result, the company began to pour all of its power and know-how into the project to achieve its flagship B.O.W.

The company's continued development of B.O.W. products was accompanied by many sacrifices. This was because a developmental B.O.W. could become uncontrollable during field tests killing or wounding R&D team researchers, and accidents damaging precious experiment equipment were frequent. As a solution, Umbrella Headquarters decreed the establishment of the professional special operations unit U.B.C.S. (Umbrella Biohazard Countermeasure Service) that suppressed out of control B.O.W.s and biohazards within the company, and to its weapon customers as an after-sales service. Sergei Vladimir's military experience was instrumental in the formation of this irregular military unit.

Umbrella had established branches all over the globe became the world's No.1 pharmaceutical company. It extended its business into other areas including cosmetics, supplements, food and chemicals. 15 While its public image as a clean and internationally high-profile company grew in popularity, so did its secret business as a weapons contractor. Almost every industrialized nation on the globe purchased biological and chemical weapons from Umbrella, with the United States being its top customer. Through this success, Umbrella held the initiative with B.O.W. development. However, a rival company soon emerged and sent industrial spies within the company to obtain information on the t-virus.

In 1992, Umbrella sought to bring Raccoon City under its complete control through organizing an extensive campaign of collusion with city mayor Michael Warren and police chief Brian Irons. It supplied funds toward the renovation of City Hall and the building of Raccoon General Hospital. These seemingly benevolent actions ensured that the city would not opposte the company. A year later, William Birkin's family were transferred to the city where he continued development of the G-virus as director of the company's secret underground laboratory and the company's main contact with police chief Irons. Over the next five years, three out of ten of the city's population became employed by the Umbrella business group.

Also in 1993, an outbreak incident occurred in a private hospital in Raccoon Forest as a result of an experimental oncolytic strain of the t-virus. The incident was covered up by the company and city police and the hospital was abandoned. In the same year, Alfred Ashford graduated from a university in England and was assigned as commander of the company's bases in the Antarctic and Rockfort Island. In December, the military training facility on Rockfort Island was established to train U.S.S. agents and the Anti-B.O.W. Countermeasure Service.

In 1994, Umbrella scientist John Clemens was transferred from the Chicago Laboratory to the Arklay Laboratory as Birkin's successor as chief scientist. That same year, a private mansion, bridge and prison complex were constructed on Rockfort Island to the specifications of Alfred Ashford. In 1996, Umbrella became the main corporate sponsor of the major city project Bright Raccoon 21 to cement its positive corporate image within Raccoon City and wash away all possible doubt from its citizens. The funds provided by the company enabled the establishment of the special operations unit S.T.A.R.S. (Special Tactics and Rescue Service) within the local police department. A mercenary code-named HUNK also began anti-B.O.W. combat training on Rockfort Island.

The company's resources enabled it to branch into several top-secret fields of technology. It constructed thirteen "U.M.F." (Umbrella Mainframe) supercomputers to store its research data, and in 1998, a defensive AI (artificial intelligence) "RED QUEEN" was created to protect this data and the company's assets and executives.

Outbreak (1998)

In 1998, a field test of the N•t-virus was planned on Gadiwall Island under the direction of executive Mylène Beardsley. However, the arrival of former soldier Norse Sealuck on the island led to the failure of the test. Spencer gave full authority to company agent Gilliam to eradicate the site, but in the process, the enhanced virus and related research were lost.

In May 1998, ten years after the assassination of James Marcus, the Queen Leech specimen he was working with just prior to his death had managed to assimilate his DNA and inherited his memories. This clone plotted revenge against the company and the destruction of the world, and to achieve this, it contaminated the executive training center with the t-virus and on May 11, caused an accidental leak of the virus within the Arklay Laboratory. It then began to contaminate the Umbrella Sewerage treatment plant and the underground laboratory within Raccoon City.

The leak of the t-virus led to several bizarre murder cases in Raccoon City the company couldn't cover up. The Arklay Laboratory was placed on complete lockdown while infected personnel slowly succumbed to the virus. Umbrella concealed the true nature of the leaks from all but a handful of employees and instead of attempting to better understand the incident, the company forced the researchers to regularly report data about it in order to advance the development of further biological weapons. William Birkin successfully recovered research material from the laboratory, including B.O.W. embryos and several strains of the t-virus. Research and development on these samples, as well as the irregular mutant Plant 42, was transferred to his laboratory beneath Raccoon City.

In June, the incidents became too much to contain due to increasing reports of bizarre murders. Spurred by the inflamed public fear, the local police mobilized S.T.A.R.S. to investigate. Due to this development, the company formulated a plan to acquire B.O.W. combat data with the skilled S.T.A.R.S. as combatants. Meanwhile, the head office ordered the "Reclamation Project" to investigate and reclaim the executive training center as a replacement research facility. Two investigation units were sent in, but the first was wiped out by B.O.W.s infesting the facility. The virus soon began to spread further beyond the training center due to the movements of the Queen Leech. 16

On July 23, the entire second investigation unit was killed on the company's Ecliptic Express train and members of S.T.A.R.S. Bravo Team began to uncover the company's illicit enterprise. Believing the chain of events in the Arklay Mountains would be the end of the company, Albert Wesker set a long-awaited plan in motion to establish a high position for himself in Umbrella's rival company by providing information. This plot was intercepted by executive Sergei Vladimir, who knew of his betrayal. He failed to kill Wesker due to Birkin's detonation of the training center, and afterwards, Wesker regrouped with S.T.A.R.S. Alpha Team and deployed them into Raccoon Forest the next day under the pretense of searching for the missing Bravo Team.

On July 24, Wesker collected a large amount of combat data from the encounters between the S.T.A.R.S. teams and B.O.W. test subjects while William Birkin formally announced the data to the Chicago branch. While he was gathering B.O.W. combat data, Sergei Vladimir saved all the research data to the U.M.F.-013 and used RED QUEEN to revoke Wesker's access. Wesker faked his death at the hands of the Tyrant T-002 and unleashed it against the remaining officers to obtain its combat data, but it was destroyed in the process. As a result, Wesker lost his gifts and was forced to escape, but still managed to secure himself a position within the rival company with the vast combat data he recovered.

Following the incident, the Hunter and Tyrant were successfully mass-produced and became the company's flagship B.O.W. models. With James Marcus dead and Alexia Ashford gone, Birkin gained power and influence as the scientist responsible for creating and successfully mass-producing the Hunter and Tyrant. With his success, the power of the American branch gradually increased, forcing the European branch to bend to its will. Furthermore, Birkin's announcement regarding his next evolution in B.O.W. research, the "Creation of G-Creatures", enabled the Chicago branch to assume dictatorial control over the corporation.

The many Umbrella Europe laboratories joined forces and created a variety of successful enhancements to existing B.O.W. models such as the Hunter γ and Nemesis-T Type in an attempt to restrain Umbrella U.S.A.'s growing influence. Disturbed by this "threat", the Chicago branch placed enormous pressure on Birkin to complete the G-virus with constant demands for progress reports, but this only resulted in increasing his displeasure with the corporation. As he began to continue research independently, he feared he would be used as a scapegoat for the outbreak in the Arklay Laboratory as an excuse to eliminate him.

The head office also chose Morpheus D. Duvall as the scapegoat for the Arklay Laboratory, another troubling employee and head of the company's waste disposal facility in the Atlantic Ocean, where his careless management led to several accidents. A dismissal notice was issued to Duvall on August 20 and the waste disposal facility was abandoned by the head office, but the facility and its staff were taken over by Duvall who began to formulate his own plan with the intention of using Umbrella as a tool. 17

Raccoon City Destruction Incident (Late 1998)

On September 15, Umbrella discovered William Birkin's intention to defect to the American government. Fearing the leak of its top mind and G-virus onto the market, the Chicago branch requested the head office to deploy the U.S.S. to seize the virus. This operation was placed under the direct command of executive Christine Henry. She negotiated with the French military to keep quiet on the transport of the virus to her laboratory in France in exchange for making the military preferential customers to future B.O.W. models. A dispatch order was also placed on the entire U.B.C.S. in the event of the U.S.S. squad's failure.

On September 20, U.S.S. Alpha and Bravo teams infiltrated Raccoon City. At the same time, U.S. military authorities issued top-secret directives to a Delta Force unit to infiltrate the city, rescue Birkin and recover the G-virus. However, Umbrella spies within the government used misinformation to lead the unit to the company's waste disposal plant in the city in order to buy extra time for the U.S.S. to reach Birkin.

On September 23, the U.S.S. confronted Birkin and fatally wounded him, but he injected himself with a sample of the G-virus and transformed into a "G" creature, allowing him to track down and kill the teams. Two agents survived but the G-virus samples were destroyed while samples of the t-virus leaked into the sewers and infected the local rodent and insect populations. As a result, a large-scale outbreak of the virus occurred within the city that quickly permeated. In response to the seizure operation's failure, Umbrella issued notices of the outbreak to its collaborators within Raccoon City and the federal government.

On September 24, the U.S. President immediately issued an executive order to declare martial law and blockade Raccoon City with Congressional approval under the pretense of a radioactive waste leak. During the incident, Umbrella cooperated with the government to allow its developmental B.O.W. models into the city and plotted to use the incident as a demonstration of the t-virus' power to its customers and as a live field test to provide data on its B.O.W. products and any irregular mutants born out of secondary infection.

On September 26, the entire 120-man U.B.C.S. was deployed into Raccoon City ostensibly to rescue civilians, but truly to serve as combatants for B.O.W. combat data collection. The Chicago branch set up a "Directorate of Operations" to oversee the company's manoeuvring during the incident, with key figures in the head office having control over the chain of command. The head office used its monitor agents within the U.B.C.S. to collect intelligence, combat data, recover treatment data, destroy evidence and carry out other objectives such as assassination of rogue employees. 18

A second U.S.S. squad was deployed into the city in another attempt to recover the G-virus. The Umbrella Europe Sixth Laboratory deployed the new Nemesis-T Type B.O.W. under the guise of a "combat performance analysis", but the research team's ultimate goal was to hunt down and kill the S.T.A.R.S. officers that destroyed the American-made Tyrant in an attempt to establish Umbrella Europe as the superior branch of the company. Its weapons were planted in the city by the company's monitor agents.

On September 29, executive Sergei Vladimir dispatched six mass-produced Tyrants into the city and set out to recover the U.M.F.-013 to ensure the company's survival in the wake of the incident. The first Tyrant was deployed into the police station to hunt down and seize the G-virus sample hidden in the pendant of Sherry Birkin. The remaining five were deployed into the company's waste incineration plant to eradicate the Delta Force soldiers in the city attempting to recover the G-virus, leading to mutual destruction. However, the first Tyrant failed to recover the virus.

An enormous amount of data on the threat posed by biological weapons was collected by Umbrella, but it was also allocated by government official Derek C. Simmons, who used the incident as a case study and then proposed the military's "Sterilization Operation", the use of a new top-secret thermobaric warhead, as a means to eradicate evidence of the government's involvement with Umbrella and the incident. He incited the President and government radicals and pushed the plan to Congress. To delay the operation, Umbrella released surveillance footage to the media showing the U.B.C.S. rescuing civilians.

On September 30, the European branch shipped several Hunter γ specimens to the Chicago branch for land transport into the city alongside the Hunter β and the second U.S.S. squad was wiped out, with the first squad's surviving agent Miguel also being killed. The second squad's only survivor, Rodriguez, decided to betray the company and steal Nyx. Attempts to recover Nyx by a small U.B.C.S. team under the command of Tommy Neilsen failed, although Neilsen prevented it from being airlifted out of the city. As a result, the company lost Nyx, but surviving U.S.S. first squad agent HUNK successfully recovered the G-virus sample from Sherry Birkin's pendant.

On October 1, Congress passed the Sterilization Operation and the company issued an evacuation order to its agents within the city. At dawn, the city was completely obliterated. The results from the incident caused each American branch of Umbrella to rapidly lose power, including the Chicago branch. The U.S. government secretly formed the top-secret Anti-Umbrella Pursuit and Investigation Team, a specialized military unit in USSTRATCOM (United States Strategic Command) comprised of agents with anti-B.O.W. experience tasked with dismantling the company's illegal operations.

Spencer used a dummy company of Umbrella to purchase an abandoned government chemical plant in the Russian Caucasus region and assigned Sergei Vladimir as director. Both the Talos prototype and U.M.F.-013 were transported to the new Caucasus Laboratory and the Talos Project was restarted under Vladimir's command. Given the immense scale of the Raccoon City incident, not even Umbrella with its resources and connections could escape responsibility entirely.

Raccoon Trial (1999-2003)

In February 1999, the American government blamed Umbrella for the viral leak in Raccoon City and issued an indefinite business suspension order against the company, preventing it from operating on U.S. soil. This dealt a crippling blow to its global stock prices and the company appealed the decision to the U.S. Supreme Court while Oswell Spencer formed the strongest possible legal counsel taking advantage of his wealth. The media began to uncover many of the company's untold atrocities and violations of the law. 19

The defense enacted strategies to prepare perjured witnesses to tilt public opinion toward a government conspiracy theory and stir up public doubt by selling secrets incriminating the government in pieces to the court and the media. The government opposed and appealed mainly on the testimony of Raccoon City survivors, but all evidence against either entity was erased due to the Sterilization Operation, and since several government officials at the time refused testimony for fear of their own crimes, the trial merely progressed slowly. Umbrella subsequently entered a state of collapse due to declining sales and prepared several backup plans for a revival. 20

Due to Umbrella's secret outsourcing of biological weapons development to other unwitting pharmaceutical companies, the entire industry suffered a severe hit to public relations and several companies were added as defendants in the lawsuits against Umbrella as a result of their unknowing involvement. Even if they were found innocent, the trial's deterioration of their public image would have a massive influence on not only sales, but also the authorizations of governments around the world. For the pharmaceutical industry, lack of approval for the drugs they develop was also a death sentence.

The federation's member companies approached the prosecution with a plea-bargain. In order to fully cooperate in the resolution of the case, they offered and gladly provided trade secrets to corner Umbrella. This was favorably accepted by the prosecution burning with passion for Umbrella's annihilation, and they scrapped the prosecution of the federation's companies. But despite this, the trial continued and a dirty PR war waged between Umbrella and the U.S. government. Umbrella remained the largest business group in the world and due to the successful recovery of the U.M.F.-013 from Raccoon City, the company was in a position to revive itself in a different reconstructed form if just one part remained. However this could only be accomplished through the acquisition of funding.

Since the suspension order against the American branch, research and development of biological weapons was conducted exclusively by the European branch through the many laboratories directly controlled by the head office. Meanwhile the company's Russian branch, the Caucasus Laboratory, was used as a mass-production plant. If there was sufficient prospect for a B.O.W. to find a practical use, an applicable production line was installed. With this facility it was possible for the Umbrella Corporation to supply the entire global market with biological weapons using transport ships.

In 2002, Spencer plotted to revive Umbrella with funds gained from a secret auction of its latest biological weapons aboard the Spencer Rain cruise ship with several high-value customers from around the world. However, former company employee Morpheus D. Duvall attacked the Paris Laboratory and stole three samples of the t-virus, then seajacked the cruise ship and leaked the virus. As a result of this bioterrorism attack, Umbrella lost many of its customers and valuable samples, including the t+G-virus. The company was forced to rely on the Talos Project as its only hope of a revival.

In February 2003, Umbrella's rival company discovered the location of the Caucasus Laboratory. This information was secretly leaked by Wesker to the Russian government, which hesitated to use the national army and hired the Private Anti-Biohazard Service to raid the location and leave no trace of the government's permission. Wesker used the organization as a distraction to kill Sergei Vladimir and steal the "Umbrella Archive", erasing the original data in the process. Following the exposure of the Caucasus Laboratory's activities, the Russian government filed another lawsuit against Umbrella.

Soon after, incriminating data from the Umbrella Archive was leaked by Wesker to the prosecution in the court case against Umbrella as key evidence. The Supreme Court immediately declared the company guilty of all charges related to the Raccoon City incident. Umbrella's rival company rose as the leader of the biological weapons market as a result of the data obtained by Wesker. However, he also provided some of the rival company's data alongside the t-virus and t-Veronica to TRICELL.

Due to the loss of the series of lawsuits brought upon by the Supreme Court's judgement, the company was saddled with full responsibility for Raccoon City's destruction and aided by its stock price crash, chronic deficit operation and damage caused by rumors, its management came to a deadlock. On March 4, the parent company Umbrella Pharmaceuticals announced it was close to being placed in receivership. Soon after, the parent company's stock plummeted into bankruptcy.

Final Piece (2004)

Over the next year, Umbrella's last remaining subsidiary Umbrella Japan Co., Ltd searched for an alienation target that would allow the business to boost back into the black. However, no domestic and foreign pharmaceutical companies or enterprises pursuing a different business showed interest due to the Umbrella business group's reputation.

On March 10, the subsidiary's Board of Directors decided on its dissolution, and the last remaining vestige of Umbrella vanished from the world.

Corporate Structure

Umbrella Pharmaceuticals was based in Germany and divided into two regional branches, Umbrella Europe and Umbrella U.S.A. The European branch was directly administered by the head office while the American branch excercised independence.

As Umbrella Pharmaceuticals grew, the head office purchased several smaller companies to expand into other business fields. These companies were reformed as subsidiaries into the konzern (concern) business group "Umbrella Corporation." This group was formed as a merger of several legally independent companies into a single economic entity under the unified management and whole 100% ownership of the original company, Umbrella Pharmaceuticals.

Footnotes

  1. 1. Umbrella Corporation Notes
  2. 2. Chief Scientist Brandon's Diary 1
  3. 3. About Umbrella's Founding
  4. 4. Trevor's Notes - Trevor's Note (3)
  5. 5. BIO HAZARD The Wicked North Sea (Page 165)
  6. 6. Chief Scientist Brandon's Diary 2
  7. 7. Alexander's Memoir
  8. 8. CODE:Veronica Report
  9. 9. Marcus' Diary 1
  10. 10. Report On B.O.W.
  11. 11. Wesker's Report II - July 31, 1978
  12. 12. Wesker's Report II - July 27, 1981
  13. 13. Research Background on the Progenitor Virus
  14. 14. Observation Record
  15. 15. Job Offer Information!
  16. 16. Training Center Reclamation Project
  17. 17. Notice of Dismissal
  18. 18. Orders to a Monitor
  19. 19. Umbrella, Raccoon Trial
  20. 20. Wesker's Extra Report